As the old adage goes, laughter truly is the best medicine. It’s no wonder, then, that comedy clubs and theatre venues fill up with crowds every Friday and Saturday, with audiences eager to let off steam at the weekend with some good old fashioned standup comedy. But what is stand up comedy exactly, and where did the art of stand-up originate? Let’s take a closer look.
Historical Origins of Stand Up
The essence of stand-up comedy – aka telling jokes to an audience – has ancient roots, but not necessarily the most flattering kind! In fact, many link the origins of stand-up comedy to American Vaudeville, which was a theatrical genre that flourished from the early 1880s to the early 1930s. While Vaudeville often presented a medley of entertainment acts and was generally considered family-friendly, Vaudeville was also a reflection of the racial dynamics of its time. While the art form offered some opportunities for Black, Asian, and other ethnic performers to showcase their talents, they often had to navigate racial stereotypes and were frequently relegated to demeaning roles.
However problematic Vaudeville may have been through the lens of the 21st century, it remains true that this type of performance art influenced the modern version of stand-up that we recognise today; it was in these theatres and musical halls in the 19th and 20th centuries that comedians began to distinguish themselves as performers in their own right, with their unique monologues, storytelling and humorous narratives.
That said, it’s also important to point out that historically, jesters and court comedians were popular in ancient civilisations from Egypt to China, serving the purpose of entertaining royalty with humorous observations.
Key Elements of Stand Up Comedy
So, what makes standup comedy different from other comedic art forms? It comes down to a number of factors:
Writing Jokes and Material
Crafting a joke isn’t as simple as just putting together a punchline; comedians spend hours, days, even years refining their material and signature storytelling style. In the case of personal narrative-based comedians like Michael McIntyre and Rhod Gilbert, jokes often stem from personal experiences, observations of society, or simply the quirks of everyday life. Others, such as Jimmy Carr, base their comedy around a mix of fictional scenarios and wordplay. Ultimately, what’s pivotal is the unique perspective the comedian brings to a story, be it fictional or something that actually happened.
Delivery and Timing
One of the most important things to know about comedy is that a joke’s success isn’t solely based on its content: it’s often delivery that counts the most. In short, timing is crucial: a well-timed pause before a punchline, the modulation of voice, and the rhythm of the joke can make a world of difference, but it can sometimes take comedians a while to hone this skill over time, learning when to hit the audience with the punchline for maximum effect.
If you’ve ever been in a comedy club in London, you’ll know that one of the most thrilling – or let’s face it, daunting – aspects of live stand-up comedy is its unpredictability. Unlike scripted shows, stand-up often involves direct interaction with the audience; comedians might riff off an audience member’s comment or react to unexpected interruptions or heckles, creating spontaneous moments that can be as funny, if not funnier, than the original material.
Performance Style and Persona
Finally, every comedian brings a unique style to the stage; some might have a deadpan delivery – like Jack Dee and the late Sean Lock – while others such as Jack Whitehall are more animated and energetic when onstage. This persona, whether a true reflection of the comedian’s personality or a crafted stage character, becomes an integral part of their act, and makes it easier for a joke-teller to turn into a household-name.
Stand Up Comedy in Pop Culture
From the early days of television to the streaming platforms of today, stand-up comedians have transitioned seamlessly into the mainstream media, becoming household names and influential figures. Legendary British comedians such as Billy Connolly, Victoria Wood, and Eddie Izzard have not only sold out venues across the country but have also appeared in TV shows, films, and even political arenas, showing the expansive reach of comedic talent. British exports like Russell Brand – who began their careers in standup – have even enjoyed successful Hollywood careers, taking their onstage charisma and persona to the big screen.
In recent years, with the rise of streaming platforms, stand-up specials have gained immense popularity, with one notable example being Dave Chappelle’s notorious Netflix specials.
Challenges of Being a Stand Up Comedian
While the allure of being a famous stand-up comedian is attractive, it’s certainly not the easiest pathway to fame and success. For most, the initial years of performing can be gruelling, with many comedians performing in small venues up and down the country, sometimes even to unresponsive or heckling audiences. Throw in poor pay, long hours, and frequent lunches at motorway service stations in-between stops, and it’s not difficult to imagine why certain people throw in the towel early.
Plus, the very nature of comedy – which often relies on challenging societal norms and addressing taboo subjects like politics – can sometimes lead to controversy. Today more than ever, standup comedians walk a fine line between humour and sensitivity.
The Bottom Line
So, what is stand-up comedy? Ultimately, it’s more than just a performer telling jokes; whether you’re in a comedy club or watching a special on your sofa, stand-up comedy is a celebration of the human experience, with all its quirks, challenges, and joys. And in today’s world, a good laugh is something we could all do with a bit more of.